Print Glossary



A website isn't really safe until it's backed up in two to three places. Most hosts will back up your site, but there are different kids of backups which you need to understand.

Full backup - the whole kit and caboodle. Can be really big as a result of all the things getting backed up.  Backups and restoration take more time to complete because of the file size BUT it's all there.

Incremental backup - requires a full backup to function, but is smaller because it backups the changes.

Differential backup - In simple words, a differential backup is like a cumulative backup that takes care of all the changes that you do since your last complete backup. Unlike incremental backups which only look for the changes in data since the last backup, differential backups look for changes in the data since the last ‘full backup’.

Backups can fail or corrupt, and that's the last thing you ever need when you've been hacked or had a major meltdown. We recommend a plugin like All in One Migration to take a full backup after each time you make big changes to your website, then saving somewhere like Google Drive, and probably somewhere else too. Your host will have backups but if your host goes down taking your site with it, the chances of your backup being totally safe get a bit worrisome. BlogVault has an amazing backup system, but ManageWP is also an acceptible choice. Some is better than none!

Brute force attacks

Because hackers don't seem to ahve anything better to do, they can set up a program to ping your site with excess traffic to crash it (a DDOS attack) or just keep on throwing things at the login page until they break in. Which is why you'll never call your admin user admin, isn't it?

Firewalls help stop them getting in, strong passwords help them have a harder time cracking it, and malware scans and removal clean up afterwards if they do get in. All of these work together as a website immune system. 


Caching is the process of storing copies of files in a cache, or temporary storage location, so that they can be accessed more quickly. Your website can have a cache, your browser has a cache, and your modem can, too. Cache literally means a collection of items stored in a hidden place. Imagine yuor fonts are loaded on every page - your readers is browsing a lot of pages. Why make them download the font each time they load a new page? Bad for your bandwidth and their data use. Their browser and your site work together to cut down the number of times a resource gets loaded, and it's hidden from the view of the reader. 

The systems and objects cached can vary a lot, as can the impact on speed, and also breaking your site. If you make changes to your site and don't see them - clear your cache. 


The characters which write in a language (usually HTML, CSS, jQuery, PHP) to do things on your website in the browser. 


Cascading stylesheets

The curtains, artwork, paint, and soft furnishings for your website tiny house. CSS gives the styles to the elements on a page, like colour, font, spacing, size, and hover states. It cascades because the code written at the bottom overwrite that at the top. For example, if I had an element which I coloured red at the top but further down coloured it blue, it would show blue.


Document Object Model

Very basically - it's the page you see rendered in front of you on the browser. If you press Ctrl + U on any webpage (if you have inspector tools activated on Chrome), you'll see the DOM in it's full, naked glory. Ew. That's the code your browser renders into what you see.

Domain Host

A domain host is an internet service that manages your domain name, such as, Domain hosts use Domain Name System (DNS) records to connect your domain name with email, websites, and other web services. Popular domain hosts include GoDaddy, enom, DreamHos®, and 1&1 IONOS, to name a few.

Think of your domain host like a business name registry as it's where you get your business name for the internet. 

Domain Name

Domain name is the address of your website that people type in the browser URL bar to visit your website. If your website is your online business, your domain name is it's business name. 


The Domain Name System (DNS) is the phonebook or google maps of the Internet. Want to know where your email gets directed, or moved your website to a new host? Ypu'll need to redirect the traffic and mail so it doesn't get lost. You need to tell your domain host to update your DNS for you.


HyperText Markup Language

The structure of each bare unfurnished room in your website tiny house. It allows the user to create and structure sections, paragraphs, headings, links, and blockquotes for web pages and applications. HTML is not a programming language, meaning it doesn’t have the ability to create dynamic functionality. Instead, it makes it possible to organise and format documents, similarly to Microsoft Word.


Ideal Customer Avatar or Ideal Client Avatar

This has nothing at all to do with the James Cameron movie starring glowing blue people - this is the one person you want your business to connect with. the one who makes your business a joy, who lights you up and makes you skip to work. Their face lights up when you tell them how your busienss can solve the problem which keeps them up at night. A match made in business heaven. Speak to them, convert them, and make them a loyal fan forever.

JS, Jquery

The finishing flourishes and customisations for your tiny house. jQuery is what creates scroll animations, allows users to move items around the DOM when we can't directly write into the template itself, lets us write really cool effects, and so much more. 

It's a complex beastie that we won't be playing with but you will have a custom.js file in your Child Theme to allow a developer to put code in for you if you ever need to, as well as accessibility fixes we have added using jQuery. 

Website migration

Taking all the contents of your website from one computer or server, and putting them on another one. Think of dragging files into a new folder but on a lager scale. Using our tiny house analogy - you're putting your site on wheels, compressing it, moving it to another vacant lot owned by someone else, and upacking again. 

WP-admin or back end

Under the hood, behind the curtain. The side of the website you see after using the /wp-admin login url, with your WordPress dashboard, plugins, and themes ready to use


Part of your site identity - the little image on a browser tab, and the icon which will show up if you make a shortcut to your site on a mobile device. It's very wee - so don't make it complex. Select a png file 512x512px.

File Manager

The cPanel File Manager is a web-based file manager that has many features similar to other popular desktop file managers, such as Windows Explorer and Mac OS X Finder. You can browse directories, as well as copy, rename, and move files. You can upload and download files, and there are several ways to edit files.


Think of this like a moat around your website tiny house - it's harder for the bad guys to get in if they have to go through the moat and portcullis first. 


In metal typesetting, a font was a particular size, weight and style of a typeface. Each font was a matched set of type, one piece (called a "sort") for each glyph, and a typeface consisting of a range of fonts that shared an overall design.

In modern usage, with the advent of digital typography, "font" is frequently synonymous with "typeface". Each style is in a separate "font file"—for instance, the typeface "Bulmer" may include the fonts "Bulmer roman", "Bulmer", "Bulmer bold" and "Bulmer extended"—but the term "font" might be applied either to one of these alone or to the whole typeface.

Front end

The website your reader will see when they click a link to your site directly or from a search engine. 


File Transfer Protocol

You know how you computer organises content into folders? This is like that but for a website, and uses another program to make the connection to your database. Filezilla is a commonly used example. 

If you have access to your File Manager thorough cPanel, you shouldn't also need FTP. 


A ligature is a special character that combines two (or sometimes three) characters into a single character. A standard ligature is functional in nature, and is created to solve the problem of characters that crash when set next to each other.

Like the "cl" in our logo - that's a ligature. Without it, it looks like this:



Every website owner's worst nightmare! It's what gets installed after your site gets hacked. The programs vary from sending out spam email from your server - destroying your bandwidth and reputation, trojans designed to steal information, and even malicious google ads which get money for the owner with every page view. They vary a lot, but the annoyance level is always right up there. 

Services like BlogVault can remove most of this nasty stuff with a one-click. Sometimes you'll need a pro to make sure everything gets got - and it's good practice after a hack of any kind to do this anyway. 



OpenType is the evolution of TTF. OTF has several exclusive capabilities, including support for multiple platforms and expanded character sets as a single font can have up to 65,000 characters. This additional space gives designers the freedom to include add-ons such as small caps, old style figures, alternate characters and other extras that previously had to be distributed as separate fonts.

If you want the fancy handwritten styles with their ligatures between characters, make sure you have OTF available.

Rubber duck debugging

Many programmers have had the experience of explaining a problem to someone else, possibly even to someone who knows nothing about programming, and then hitting upon the solution in the process of explaining the problem. In describing what the code is supposed to do and observing what it actually does, any incongruity between these two becomes apparent. A rubber duck knows nothing about programming, so it's the choice for a lot of coders!

When you get doing technical work, rubber duck debugging can really help you see the light. 

Dogs and spouses can be good rubber duck replacements. 


You can tack on a whole 'nother website to your main site with a subdomain. For example - or A common use case is for testing and development work on a staging site which is a subdomain too -

It's a whole separate website, not connected at all to the parent in anything other than the domain name. 


Secure Sockets Layer

Have you ever noticed that some URLs start with http://, while others start with https://?  To put it simply, the extra "s" means your connection to that website is secure and encrypted; any data you enter is safely shared with that website. The SSL certificate makes that little"s" in the url, and does the encryption work for you.


Scalable Vector Graphic

Our choice of file type for website logos as they stay crisp whatever size they are on site - huuuuge or tiny. They are usually very small in terms of data size as well. You will need another plugin in order to upload them. We use SVG Support for this. 

Temporary Domain

A temporary domain is a domain provided to you temporarily. It is convenient to help you get started with your website without losing too much time on thinking of a name for it. You do not own the temporary domain and you may not point it to servers outside our platform. Siteground provides this service on some levels of their plans. It's a pretty ugly url, like, but no one will see it anyway.

You will need to migrate your site into it's forever home when you're done building to make sure that the database has all the right names in the right places, even though you can change the name of your temporary domain to the name of the permanent domain. The trick is that not all the links and database items change with that name change, so we need to do something about it before you go live. 


Time to shoot trouble! The steps you go through to locate a problem. Typically it will be: deactivate suspected plugins, chck. Deactivate all but essential plugins, check. Change to basic theme, check. 

The process depends on the problem. 



Developed in the 1980s, the TrueType font format uses mathmatical equations to create lines and curves rather than pixels or dots. This measn that no matter the size of the text, it will always looks the same - crips and beautiful, "true". All major browsers have supported it. However, Internet Explorer 8 has no support for TTF; and starting with IE9 it is only partially supported.

TTF files are larger than their WOFF counterparts. 

Website host

Web hosting is the place where all the files of your website live. It is like the home of your website where it actually lives.

A good way to think about this is if the domain name was the name of your business, then web hosting is the actual physical address. All websites on the internet, need web hosting.


Web Open Font Format

WOFF is basically OTF or TTF with metadata and compression supported by all major browsers. It was created to live on the web. Because fonts are compressed, they load faster and it's the future of font use on the web. 

WOFF2 is the next generation of WOFF and is even more compressed and speedy than WOFF but isn't as widely supported yet. 


Wordpress is a Content Management System (CMS) which allows you to create a website without writing any code.

In the early days of the web, you needed to know HTML to be able to publish your content online. That used to be hard, but CMS has made it much easier. Instead of writing your website code from scratch, the CMS software does it for you. Think of it like driving a car. You don’t need to understand the mechanics behind how it all works. Instead, you use a simplified dashboard and pedals to tell the car what to do.

Helping you get your business started. 
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